COVID-19 Vaccine FAQ
COVID-19 Vaccine FAQ
What do I need to know about COVID-19 Vaccines?
Learn more about how the COVID-19 vaccines work and when they might be available to you. At this time, the state is responsible for identifying who qualifies to get a COVID-19 vaccine and when. Vaccination will help protect you and those around you from COVID-19. By being vaccinated, wearing a mask, and staying at least 6 ft. away from others, we can help end this pandemic.
On December 12, 2020, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved a COVID-19 vaccine from Pfizer under emergency use authorization. We expect the second vaccine to be approved will be from Moderna. We will continue to update this page as we learn more about COVID-19 vaccines. Let’s fight COVID-19 together.
Frequently Asked Questions
Learn about how the COVID-19 vaccines work and when they might be available to you.
+ What is a vaccine?
A vaccine is a substance that can help protect you against specific diseases. Vaccines cause your immune system to make antibodies, which fight viruses and bacteria. If you get exposed to a disease you’ve been vaccinated against, the antibodies will fight the disease-causing bacteria or viruses before they make you sick. For more information on vaccines, visit the Centers for Disease Control.
+ How do COVID-19 vaccines work?
The first COVID-19 vaccines that will be available are mRNA vaccines. They work by telling our bodies to make a protein that then produces antibodies. These antibodies help protect you from the virus that causes COVID-19. You can learn more about the specific vaccines by visiting the Centers for Disease Control.
+ When can I get the COVID-19 vaccine?
The goal is for everyone who wants it to eventually get the COVID-19 vaccine. But it will take time to make enough vaccines for everyone. Because of this, the vaccine will be given in phases that have been determined by the state. When you qualify to get the vaccine will be based on things like your job, your age, and your health.
You can view the New Hampshire prioritization guidelines for the vaccine on the NH.gov Vaccine Planning webpage.
Vaccinations of people in Phase 1 began in mid-December 2020.
If you are a healthy adult under 65 years old without a medical condition or high-risk job, we expect that you’ll be able to get a vaccine later in 2021. It’s important to know that the timeline may change. When vaccines are available to each phase will depend on things like:
- How many vaccines are approved.
- How many vaccines each company is able to make.
+ Where can I get the COVID-19 vaccine?
If you fall into one of the current COVID-19 vaccine phases you’ll want to contact your Primary Care Physician (PCP) for next steps on how to get vaccinated. When the vaccine becomes more broadly available we recommend visiting vaccinefinder.org to find a vaccine location near you.
+ Will the vaccine be covered by my health insurance?
Yes, you will be able to get a COVID-19 vaccine at no cost as a member of our health plan.
+ Is the vaccine mandatory?
We don’t know of any current plans to make COVID-19 vaccines mandatory, and the Biden administration has said that they do not plan to make the vaccine mandatory throughout the U.S.
+ How are COVID vaccines given?
The vaccine will be given as a shot in the upper arm. The first vaccines that will be available require two doses.
For the Pfizer vaccine, the second shot will be three weeks after the first. For the Moderna vaccine, it will be four weeks after the first shot.
It’s important that you get both shots. If you don’t, you won’t be as well-protected from COVID-19 as you could be. You can learn more about the specific vaccines by visiting the Centers for Disease Control.
How well do the vaccines work?
+ Does the vaccine prevent COVID-19?
COVID-19 vaccines are very effective (about 95 percent) in preventing COVID-19. While they helped prevent COVID-19 generally, they were particularly good at preventing severe cases of the disease. You can learn more about how the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines is determined by visiting the Centers for Disease Control.
It’s important that you get both shots. If you don’t, you won’t be as well-protected from COVID-19 as you could be.
However, it’s important to keep wearing a mask and distancing because:
Not everyone will get the vaccine at once. Following public health guidelines will help protect anyone who hasn’t gotten the vaccine yet.
Although it’s not likely, it’s still possible to get COVID-19 after getting the vaccine, as no vaccine is 100 percent effective.
Because COVID-19 vaccines are so new, we don’t know yet how long the vaccine will protect you from getting COVID-19.
+ How long does protection from COVID last?
Because COVID-19 vaccines are so new, we don’t know how long protection will last just yet. The studies that are going on now will help to answer that question. You may have to get vaccinated again in the future.
Are the vaccines safe?
+ Are COVID vaccines safe?
Yes. COVID-19 vaccines have gone through the same trials as other approved vaccines. The COVID-19 vaccines have met the high safety standards these trials set.
Vaccines have been approved under emergency authorization because of how serious the pandemic is. But the safety standards for emergency authorization are close to the same as the ones vaccines have to meet for regular authorization.
Expert groups will also keep looking at the COVID-19 vaccine’s safety after people start to take it. For more information about how the safety of COVID-19 vaccines is decided, please visit the Centers for Disease Control.
+ What are the side effects of COVID-19 vaccines?
Some people in the clinical trials did report side effects. However, these have generally been mild, and are a sign the immune system is working. Reported side effects include headaches, fatigue, chills, and soreness at the injection site. A small number of participants had a fever.
For some people, these side effects were worse after the second dose.
Side effects from a vaccine usually go away on their own within a few days.
If your side effects last more than 48 hours, we recommend that you contact your PCP as soon as possible.
You can find more information about the side effects of each available vaccine by visiting the Centers for Disease Control.
+ Have there been any serious negative effects from the vaccine?
No. There have been no serious safety concerns noted in the studies of these vaccines. Visit the Centers for Disease Control for more information about vaccine safety.
+ Can I get COVID-19 from the vaccine?
No, you cannot get COVID-19 from the vaccine. The vaccine doesn’t actually contain the virus that causes COVID-19.
+ Can I spread COVID-19 from the vaccine?
No. As of December 2020, the vaccines available do not contain the virus that causes COVID-19, which means the vaccine itself won’t cause you to spread COVID-19.
+ Can I still spread COVID-19 after I get the vaccine, even if I don’t get sick?
While we know the COVID-19 vaccines can prevent severe COVID-19 infections, we do not yet know how effective the vaccines are in preventing asymptomatic infection, which is when you are infected with COVID-19 but don’t have any symptoms. It may be possible to still spread COVID-19 after getting a vaccine, so it is still important to wear masks and keep distances between people.
As people start to get the vaccines, researchers will be looking at how well they prevent asymptomatic infection.
+ Will the vaccine stay in my body or enter my DNA?
No. The cells that use the mRNA vaccine get rid of the mRNA after they finish using it. The mRNA never gets into the part of the cell where DNA is located.
+ Does the vaccine affect fertility?
There is no evidence that the COVID-19 vaccine affects fertility. In the safety data from the Pfizer trial, the same proportion of people got pregnant in the vaccine group as the placebo group. Based on this, the vaccine is recommended even if you are planning to get pregnant soon.
Should I get the vaccine?
+ Do the COVID-19 vaccines work in Black and Latinx individuals?
The U.S. clinical trials included 10 percent Black and 13 percent Hispanic/Latinx participants. Data from the Pfizer studies showed that the vaccine has similar success rates in white, Black, and Latinx people.
+ Should I get the vaccine if I had COVID-19 already?
Yes. Experts recommend getting the vaccine even if you already had COVID-19 more than 90 days (about three months) ago. If you’ve been diagnosed with COVID-19 within the last 90 days, please wait until the 90 days is over before receiving the vaccine.
+ Can pregnant or breastfeeding people get the vaccine?
Although there is currently no data specifically on COVID-19 vaccine safety in pregnant and breastfeeding people, there is very low concern for safety issues, based on experience with other vaccines and the science of the COVID-19 vaccines.
Therefore, based on guidance by the FDA and the Centers for Disease Control, people who are pregnant or breastfeeding may choose to have the COVID-19 vaccine.
If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, please talk to your doctor about potential risks and benefits. We have seen that pregnant people are at increased risk for severe COVID-19, which means that the benefits may outweigh the risks for many.
As the vaccine is given to more people, researchers are looking at the benefits and potential risks for pregnant and breastfeeding people.
+ Should I get the vaccine if I have allergies?
The Centers for Disease Control recommends that people who have severe allergies to any ingredient in the vaccine do not get that vaccine. In addition, they recommend that you should not get the second dose if you have a severe allergic reaction to the first dose. Everyone who gets the vaccine will be watched for 15 minutes after the injection to make sure they do not have any signs of an allergic reaction. People who have severe allergies to other vaccines or injectable medications will be watched for 30 minutes.
The vaccines do not contain any food products - including eggs - or metals.
Once you are able to get the vaccine, talk to your allergist or PCP if you have concerns.
+ My health condition isn’t addressed here. How do I know if the vaccine is safe for me?
People with certain health conditions, including diabetes, heart disease, obesity, were included in the vaccine studies. Therefore, there is evidence the vaccine is safe for people with these conditions. However, people who are immunosuppressed were not part of the trials.
If you have concerns about whether or not you should get a COVID-19 vaccine when you're able to, talk to your doctor.
+ Do the vaccines work in older adults?
Yes. The Pfizer vaccine worked as well in older adults as it did in younger adults. In this trial, about 45 percent of participants were ages 56-85. The Department of Health and Human Services has included older adults in the Phase 1 roll out of COVID-19 vaccines.
+ Can the vaccines be given to children?
The FDA approved the Pfizer vaccine for anyone 16 years of age or older. When they approve other vaccines, they'll give a recommended minimum age for each.
A small number of children as young as 12 years of age were included in the vaccine studies. There were no safety concerns noted for this group. However, as of December 2020, COVID-19 vaccines haven’t been studied in younger children. These studies are now being planned.